By Thomas E. Hall
When executive imposes new taxes, principles, or laws, it creates results that regularly range from the unique rationale. in certain cases, those results are so critical that they render the coverage a failure. The legislations of accidental outcomes has taken on an expanding significance in the course of the period of ever-expanding govt, and this booklet explores 4 very important examples: cigarette taxes, alcohol prohibition, the minimal salary, and federal source of revenue tax. Thomas E. corridor examines how the regulations got here into being, what underlying political concerns motivated the method, the accidental results of the regulations, and why a lot of those regulations are nonetheless in position. simply because lots of those accidental effects are heavily adversarial, the writer argues that the ethical of those 4 key examples is that each time a brand new executive coverage is being thought of, even more particular overview has to be given to the variety of strength accidental consequences—a perform that's hardly ever or effectively undertaken.
Read Online or Download Aftermath: The Unintended Consequences of Public Policies PDF
Best economic policy & development books
In its comparability of 2 significant rising international locations, India and Brazil, this ebook methods the topic via an leading edge theoretical mix of developmental states theory and theories of the altering nature of worldwide capitalism.
The constructed international, more and more conscious of “inconvenient truths” approximately worldwide warming and sustainability, is popping its cognizance to attainable remedies—eco-efficiency, sustainable improvement, and company social accountability, between others. yet such measures are mere Band-Aids, and so they may very well do extra damage than sturdy, says John Ehrenfeld, a pioneer within the box of business ecology.
Die Gewährung von Subventionen an hoch cutting edge Unternehmen wird in der ökonomischen Literatur kontrovers diskutiert. Die Befürworter stützen sich unter anderem auf das in den 1980er Jahren entwickelte Argument der strategischen Handelspolitik, während die Gegner in einem solchen staatlichen Eingriff große Probleme für die Volkswirtschaft sehen.
Just about all complex democracies have introduced major privatization courses over the past 3 many years. notwithstanding, whereas there has been an international run into privatization, monstrous cross-national changes within the divesture of state-owned companies will be saw. This ebook specializes in the political economic system of privatization, and addresses the questions 'What are the riding forces at the back of this improvement and the way can the adaptation be defined?
- Adam Smith, Radical and Egalitarian: An Interpretation for the 21st Century
- Competition, Innovation, and Antitrust: A Theory of Market Leaders and Its Policy Implications
- Making the International: Economic Interdependence and Political Order (World of Whose Making?)
- Technology Transfer of Federally Funded R&D: Perspectives from a Forum
- The European Union: From Jean Monnet to the Euro
- Local Government Budget Stabilization: Explorations and Evidence (Studies in Public Budgeting)
Extra info for Aftermath: The Unintended Consequences of Public Policies
Federal government responded by increasing expenditures on defense goods. By 1916, higher defense spending combined with falling revenue from customs duties (due to fewer imports from war-torn Europe) caused the government to incur a sizable budget deficit. More revenue was needed, and the income tax was suddenly, conveniently available. The Emergency Revenue Act of 1916 raised the tax rate on incomes above $4,000 from 1 percent to 2 percent, and pushed the top rate to 13 percent on incomes above $2 million.
In effect, this is an intergenerational transfer scheme that taxes workers and pays older retirees. Retirees, of course, feel entitled to these benefits because they have paid taxes into this system while they worked, and the current workers accept the arrangement so long as they believe benefits will be available when they retire. The huge expansion of transfer payments has required higher tax rates to help fund them. Recall that in 1937, the original Social Security payroll tax rate for OASDI (old-age, survivors, and disability insurance) was 2 percent.
6 Since rear-end collisions are usually less injurious than T-bone collisions, traffic cameras seem justified on safety grounds, although there is disagreement on this point. Another example is China’s one-child policy, which was instituted in 1979. This policy restricts married couples to one child, although there are exceptions, depending on various factors, including the couple’s ethnicity and where they live in China. Couples who violate the policy are subject to severe fines. In addition, some reports mention women enduring forced abortions and sterilizations, as well as government officials seizing babies and selling them on the adoption market.