Aircraft Loading and Structural Layout (Aerospace Series by Denis Howe

By Denis Howe

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When this is so the value usually represents a special condition conveniently covered by means of an ultimate factor rather than implying a higher order of safety. One such example is the emergency alighting case where only ultimate conditions are relevant. 1 Introduction The application of proof and ultimate factors covers the limit load condition of a particular case but by itself is only adequate for a short-life vehicle. Other measures are necessary to safeguard the integrity of the structure when it is subjected to numerous repetitions of loads over the life of the vehicle.

Aircraft loading and structural layout (b) It may be advisable to apply a factor to the predicted values of the wing-body zero-lift pitching moment coefficient i n the various high-lift device configurations or to establish a minimum value for loading calculations. Associated with this it may be wise to include an adverse increment in the assumed position of the aerodynamic centre of the wing-body relative to the overall centre of gravity of the aircraft. Such allowances must be made with extreme caution since, while they may be desirable if not actually necessary, any undue allowance will result in an unjustifiably conservative and over-designed structure.

The ground cases need to be considered for the range of masses from the basic empty mass to the ramp mass. In either case some operational limitations may he imposed. for example it is common to specify a maximum landing mass for ground cases which makes some allowance for the use oT fuel during the Right. It is imponant to examine mass conditions between the two extremes for a given case. This is necessary because of the effect of inertial forces in relieving the air-loads. For example, the wing structural loading may he higher than the take-off conditions when part of the fuel has been used and its relief effect reduced in greater proportion than the corresponding reduction of overall mass.

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