An Historical Geography of Europe, 1500-1840 by Norman John Greville Pounds

By Norman John Greville Pounds

This publication, like its better half quantity, An old Geography of Europe 450 BC-AD 1330, seeks to envision the complicated of normal and man-made beneficial properties that experience stimulated the process heritage and feature been motivated by means of it. It follows the overall development of the sooner quantity and spans the interval from the early 16th century to the eve of the commercial Revolution in continental Europe, nearly 1500 to 1840. It first provides an image of the geography of Europe - political, social and financial - within the early 16th century, and it ends with the same photo of continental Europe within the early 19th. The intervening interval of approximately 3 centuries is simply too brief to be offered in a chain of cross-sections. as a substitute, among those horizontal images a chain of vertical reviews has been inserted. those hint the advance of the most points of eu geography in this interval. There are chapters on inhabitants, city improvement, agriculture, production and exchange and shipping. As within the prior quantity, no test has been made to incorporate both the British Isles or Russia, and those are observed in simple terms by the way.

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Lucerne^. 'Fribourg . Ax { 0 50 100 km Fig. 7 The towns of Switzerland from the c/v/tas-capitals of the Roman empire. Most of the latter became the seats of bishops and thus pre-empted as it were the urban functions of their dioceses. Outside the boundaries of the Roman empire there were no towns in the early Middle Ages, and the political fragmentation later led to a spate of competitive town-building. The immense number of towns which emerged in central Europe was offset by their small average size.

On such occasions the land had to be ploughed afresh and sown with a spring crop (see p. 175). The cropping system which had developed in much of Europe during the Middle Ages called for the alternation of autumn- and spring-sown grains with fallow. Wheat or rye was thus followed by oats or barley. The two groups of cereals were thus in joint production, with the autumn-sown grains cropping as a general rule rather more heavily than the spring-sown. 8 247 The spring-sown grains were not held in high regard.

The overall density of population may have been as low as ten, though a much denser population would have been met with in such areas as the Skopje, Bitola and Sofia basins and near Edirne, Sarajevo and Beograd. With Mediterranean Europe we enter a realm at once more populous and better documented. Italy not only had a large and literate middle class to which the size of the population was of interest, but also experienced difficulty in its urban food supply and thus felt a need to have a record of numbers.

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