By Loren T. Stuckenbruck
The general public worship of the risen Christ as depicted in John's Apocalypse at once contradicts the guiding angel's emphasis that in basic terms God will be worshiped (Revelation 19:10; 22:8-9). In Angel Veneration and Christology, Loren Stuckenbruck explores this contradiction in gentle of angel veneration in Early Judaism.
Stuckenbruck surveys a wide selection of Jewish traditions concerning angelic worship and discovers proscriptions opposed to sacrificing to angels; prohibitions opposed to making photos of angels; rejections of the "two powers"; second-century Christian apologetic accusations in particular directed opposed to Jews; and, most significantly, the refusal culture, common in Jewish and Jewish-Christian writings, in which angelic messengers refuse the veneration of the seer and exhort the worship of God alone.
While proof for the perform of angel veneration among Jews of antiquity (Qumran, pseudepigraphal literature, and inscriptions from Asia Minor) doesn't provide the quick historical past for the worship of Christ, Stuckenbruck demonstrates that the actual fact that safeguards to a monotheistic framework have been issued in any respect throws mild at the Christian perform of worshiping Jesus. the way in which the Apocalypse adapts the refusal culture illuminates Revelation's declarations approximately and depictions of Jesus. even though the refusal culture itself simply safeguards the worship of God, Stuckenbruck lines how the culture has been break up in order that the angelophanic components have been absorbed into the christophany. As Stuckenbruck exhibits, an angelomorphic Christology, shared by way of the writer of Revelation and its readers, capabilities to maintain the author's monotheistic emphasis in addition to to stress Christ's superiority over the angels―setting the degree for the worship of the Lamb in a monotheistic framework that doesn't contradict the angelic directive to worship God on my own.
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Extra info for Angel Veneration and Christology. A Study in Early Judaism and in the Christology of the Apocalypse of John
173. 6 1 For BULTMANN, the "Christian" character of the Apocalypse is appar ent only in the certainty of eschatological hope, a motif which thought to be lacking in Jewish apocalypses. 173-75. Cf. BOUSSET's overview of the contemporary source-critical analysis of Revelation in Die Offenbarung Johannes (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1906) 108-118 and the synoptic summary in CHARLES, Studies in the Apocalypse (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1913) 185-90. BOUSSET was a proponent of a modifi cation of the literary-critical hypothesis by arguing that the author edited "fragments" from various older works; See further MÜLLER, Messias und Men schensohn, pp.
Robert F. BERKEY and Sarah A. EDWARDS, Christo logical Perspectives. Essays in Honor of Harvey K. McArthur (New York: Pil grim, 1982) 139-54; Gregory K. BEALE, "The Problem of the Man from the Sea in IV Ezra 13 and its Relation to the Messianic Concept in John's Apocalypse," NT 25 (1983) 182-88; Richard Robert CREECH, Christology and Conflict. E. ," NTS 34 (1988) 321-38, esp. pp. 328-32. 3 Scholarly Approaches to Chrlstology in the Apocalypse of John 23 within the framework of other questions.
1990) 39-71; and, most recently, "The Risen Christ and Angelic Mediator Figures in Light of Qumran," in ed. James H. CHARLESWORTH, Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1992) 302-328. 33 "De Joodse toneelschrijver Ezechiel," NTT 36 (1982 ) 97-112 and "Mo ses' Throne Vision in Ezekiel the Dramatist," JJS 34 (1983 ) 21-29. Continuity and terminology in their descriptions Discontinuity 13 of Jewish thought. The "cult" vocabulary in their works is in clear contrast absence of such to its application by HURT ADO as a negative criterion for assessing previous and contemporary stud ies.