Applications of neutron powder diffraction by Erich H. Kisi

By Erich H. Kisi

This is often the 1st publication masking the speculation, practicalities, and the broad functions of neutron powder diffraction in fabrics technological know-how, physics, chemistry, mineralogy and engineering. quite a few spotlight purposes of neutron powder diffraction are defined within the creation, then the idea is built and instrumentation defined adequate for a go back to the functions. The publication covers using neutron powder diffraction within the answer (hard) and refinement (more common) of crystal and magnetic constructions, functions of powder diffraction in quantitative part research, extraction of microstructural details from powder diffraction styles, and the functions of neutron diffraction in reviews of elastic homes and for the dimension of residual rigidity. extra concept to underpin those numerous purposes is built as required. a lot of the cloth may be obtainable to senior undergraduates in technological know-how and engineering, in addition to to graduate scholars and extra senior researchers with an curiosity within the method.

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The first example in this section is that of incommensurate superlattices. 2, we discussed how a superlattice may form in a solid solution by ordering of formerly random solute atoms to well-defined crystallographic sites. In that discussion, a tacit assumption was made that the new unit cell volume would be an integer multiple of the disordered cell volume. In a small fraction of cases this is not true and the superlattice is said to be incommensurate (or out of step) with the base structure. The shorthand description of the structure through an exactly specified unit cell is inadequate.

For example, in the cubic example earlier, 1 1 0 represents [1 1 0], [1 0 1], [0 1 1], ¯ [101], ¯ [011], ¯ and their negatives. In the tetragonal example, 1 1 0 repre[110], ¯ and their negatives. The others are represented by 1 0 1 sents only [1 1 0], [110], (or 0 1 1 ). A related system is used for the description of lattice planes. Any plane in the lattice not passing through the origin will intercept a unit cell at discrete points or fractional intercepts along the three unit cell edges as shown in Fig.

Shull et al. (1951a) completed the first experimental determination of the magnetic form factor for the Mn2+ ion as part of the same study. Though the important features of the Shull et al. structure are correct, a subsequent neutron study at sufficient resolution to reveal the rhombohedral distortion (Roth 1958) also revealed that the magnetic moments are aligned not along the cube edges (as indicated in Fig. 8) but in directions normal to the body diagonal. The magnetic structure of the tetragonal fluoride MnF2 , in its low-temperature antiferromagnetic phase, was another study in early times (Erickson 1953).

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