By Akihiro Abe, Karel Dusˇek, Shiro Kobayashi, B. Améduri, B. Boutevin, P. Czub, P. Penczek, J. Pielichowski, M.A. Rodríguez-Pérez, A. Taguet
Content material: Unsaturated polyester resins : chemistry and know-how / P. Penczek, P. Czub, J. Pielichowski -- Crosslinked polyolefin foams : creation, constitution, houses, and functions / M.A. Rodriguez-Perez -- Crosslinking of vinylidene fluoride-containing fluoropolymers / A. Taguet, B. Ameduri, B. Boutevin
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Extra resources for Crosslinking In Materials Science
As soon as laminators start working on the item, the anti-emission ﬁlm is broken and becomes ineffective. In a general approach the styrene evaporation suppressants are dissolved in the UPRs. , in the solution of unsaturated polyester in styrene and in styrene itself as well. It is, however, insoluble in the polyester. In the course of processing, styrene monomer evaporates from the surface and the suppressant forms a thin ﬁlm, which exhibits barrier properties in relation to styrene. This mechanism is well known as far as solution of parafﬁn wax in UPRs is concerned.
Crosslinking temperature and styrene content, the rotating frame, T1ρ using high resolution 13 C-NMR in the solid state with cross polarization along with high power Dipolar Decoupling (DD) and Magic Angle Spinning (CP/MAS) . It was found that the crosslinking effect was governed by the number of residual unsaturation sites, the length of styrene subchains as well as the concentration of styrene and polyester chain ends. The extent of the crosslinking effect can be determined by subtracting the calculated values of relaxation times related exclusively to the composition (so called copolymer effect) from the experimental values resulting from the crosslinking and combined copolymer effects.
For a given polystyrene segment sequence length and curing temperature) might be associated also with the changes in crosslinking density, controlled by the variations in the UP composition . 3 MHz) spectroscopy in solid state with CP/MAS was applied for the determination of residual unsaturation in styrene-cured UPRs containing fumarate, iso-phthalate and propylene glycol structural units . Problems appear with overlapping peaks in 13 C-NMR spectra of solid styrene-cured UPRs, but the used interrupted decoupling pulse sequence reduced the level of interference by suppressing the signals from the CH and CH2 groups.