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Extra info for Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology, Vol. 69
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Double-stranded RNA along the entire length of RNA I (223). In addition, the replication of the plasmid is also controlled by a 63-amino acid plasmid-encoded protein, Rop (or Rom), which stabilizes the three hairpin pairs formed between RNA I and RNA II (224, 225). The Rop protein dimer does not show sequence specificity, but rather recognizes RNA structure (226). Initiation frequency of plasmid R1 replication is also controlled by an antisense RNA, CopA, which inhibits RepA protein synthesis by binding to CopT, the leader region of the repA mRNA (227).
The double-stranded stem is interrupted by a purine bulge that seems to regulate the two-step dimerization process, leading to the formation of an extended duplex (231). Mutations in the kissing loop of HIV-1 RNA that affect the dimerization reaction reduce viral infectivity and viral RNA packaging (233). As key driving steps for viral infection, the DIS constitute a target of interest for controlling HIV development. Antisense and sense oligonucleotides have been used to interfere with the dimerization process, contributing to our understanding of the natural mechanism while allowing the development of new antiviral agents (220, 234, 235).